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# Copyright (c) 2010 The Chromium OS Authors. All rights reserved.
# Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style license that can be
# found in the LICENSE file.
import collections
import logging
import random
import string
import time
from autotest_lib.client.common_lib import error
from import interface
from autotest_lib.server import site_linux_system
from autotest_lib.server.cros import wifi_test_utils
from import hostap_config
StationInstance = collections.namedtuple('StationInstance',
['ssid', 'interface', 'dev_type'])
class LinuxRouter(site_linux_system.LinuxSystem):
"""Linux/mac80211-style WiFi Router support for WiFiTest class.
This class implements test methods/steps that communicate with a
router implemented with Linux/mac80211. The router must
be pre-configured to enable ssh access and have a mac80211-based
wireless device. We also assume hostapd 0.7.x and iw are present
and any necessary modules are pre-loaded.
KNOWN_TEST_PREFIX = 'network_WiFi'
SUFFIX_LETTERS = string.ascii_lowercase + string.digits
HOSTAPD_CONF_FILE_PATTERN = '/tmp/hostapd-test-%s.conf'
HOSTAPD_LOG_FILE_PATTERN = '/tmp/hostapd-test-%s.log'
HOSTAPD_CONTROL_INTERFACE_PATTERN = '/tmp/hostapd-test-%s.ctrl'
STATION_CONF_FILE_PATTERN = '/tmp/wpa-supplicant-test-%s.conf'
STATION_LOG_FILE_PATTERN = '/tmp/wpa-supplicant-test-%s.log'
def get_capabilities(self):
"""@return iterable object of AP capabilities for this system."""
caps = set([self.CAPABILITY_IBSS])
self.cmd_send_management_frame = wifi_test_utils.must_be_installed(, '/usr/bin/send_management_frame')
except error.TestFail:
return super(LinuxRouter, self).get_capabilities().union(caps)
def router(self):
"""Deprecated. Use instead.
@return Host object representing the remote router.
def __init__(self, host, test_name):
"""Build a LinuxRouter.
@param host Host object representing the remote machine.
@param test_name string name of this test. Used in SSID creation.
super(LinuxRouter, self).__init__(host, 'router')
self.cmd_dhcpd = '/usr/sbin/dhcpd'
self.cmd_hostapd = wifi_test_utils.must_be_installed(
host, '/usr/sbin/hostapd')
self.cmd_hostapd_cli = wifi_test_utils.must_be_installed(
host, '/usr/sbin/hostapd_cli')
self.cmd_wpa_supplicant = wifi_test_utils.must_be_installed(
host, '/usr/sbin/wpa_supplicant')
self.dhcpd_conf = '/tmp/dhcpd.%s.conf'
self.dhcpd_leases = '/tmp/dhcpd.leases'
# hostapd configuration persists throughout the test, subsequent
# 'config' commands only modify it.
self.ssid_prefix = test_name
if self.ssid_prefix.startswith(self.KNOWN_TEST_PREFIX):
# Many of our tests start with an uninteresting prefix.
# Remove it so we can have more unique bytes.
self.ssid_prefix = self.ssid_prefix[len(self.KNOWN_TEST_PREFIX):]
self.ssid_prefix = self.ssid_prefix.lstrip('_')
self.ssid_prefix += '_'
self._total_hostapd_instances = 0
self.local_servers = []
self.hostapd_instances = []
self.station_instances = []
self.dhcp_low = 1
self.dhcp_high = 128
# Kill hostapd and dhcp server if already running.
# Place us in the US by default
def close(self):
"""Close global resources held by this system."""
super(LinuxRouter, self).close()
def has_local_server(self):
"""@return True iff this router has local servers configured."""
return bool(self.local_servers)
def start_hostapd(self, hostapd_conf_dict, configuration):
"""Start a hostapd instance described by conf.
@param hostapd_conf_dict dict of hostapd configuration parameters.
@param configuration HostapConfig object.
"""'Starting hostapd with parameters: %r',
# Figure out the correct interface.
interface = self.get_wlanif(configuration.frequency, 'managed')
conf_file = self.HOSTAPD_CONF_FILE_PATTERN % interface
log_file = self.HOSTAPD_LOG_FILE_PATTERN % interface
pid_file = self.HOSTAPD_PID_FILE_PATTERN % interface
control_interface = self.HOSTAPD_CONTROL_INTERFACE_PATTERN % interface
hostapd_conf_dict['interface'] = interface
hostapd_conf_dict['ctrl_interface'] = control_interface
# Generate hostapd.conf."cat <<EOF >%s\n%s\nEOF\n" %
(conf_file, '\n'.join(
"%s=%s" % kv for kv in hostapd_conf_dict.iteritems())))
# Run hostapd."Starting hostapd...")'rm %s' % log_file, ignore_status=True)'rm %s' % pid_file, ignore_status=True)'stop wpasupplicant', ignore_status=True)
start_command = '%s -dd -B -t -f %s -P %s %s' % (
self.cmd_hostapd, log_file, pid_file, conf_file)
'ssid': hostapd_conf_dict['ssid'],
'conf_file': conf_file,
'log_file': log_file,
'interface': interface,
'pid_file': pid_file,
'config_dict': hostapd_conf_dict.copy()
# Wait for confirmation that the router came up.
pid = int('cat %s' % pid_file).stdout)'Waiting for hostapd to startup.')
start_time = time.time()
while time.time() - start_time < self.STARTUP_TIMEOUT_SECONDS:
success =
'grep "Completing interface initialization" %s' % log_file,
ignore_status=True).exit_status == 0
if success:
# A common failure is an invalid router configuration.
# Detect this and exit early if we see it.
bad_config =
'grep "Interface initialization failed" %s' % log_file,
ignore_status=True).exit_status == 0
if bad_config:
raise error.TestFail('hostapd failed to initialize AP '
if pid:
early_exit ='kill -0 %d' % pid,
if early_exit:
raise error.TestFail('hostapd process terminated.')
raise error.TestFail('Timed out while waiting for hostapd '
'to start.')
def _kill_process_instance(self, process, instance=None, wait=0):
"""Kill a process on the router.
Kills program named |process|, optionally only a specific
|instance|. If |wait| is specified, we makes sure |process| exits
before returning.
@param process string name of process to kill.
@param instance string instance of process to kill.
@param wait int timeout in seconds to wait for.
if instance:
search_arg = '-f "%s.*%s"' % (process, instance)
search_arg = process
cmd = "pkill %s >/dev/null 2>&1" % search_arg
if wait:
cmd += (" && while pgrep %s &> /dev/null; do sleep 1; done" %
search_arg), timeout=wait, ignore_status=True)
else:, ignore_status=True)
def kill_hostapd_instance(self, instance):
"""Kills a hostapd instance.
@param instance string instance to kill.
self._kill_process_instance('hostapd', instance, 30)
def kill_hostapd(self):
"""Kill all hostapd instances."""
def __get_default_hostap_config(self):
"""@return dict of default options for hostapd."""
return {'hw_mode': 'g',
'logger_syslog': '-1',
'logger_syslog_level': '0',
# default RTS and frag threshold to ``off''
'rts_threshold': '2347',
'fragm_threshold': '2346',
'driver': self.HOSTAPD_DRIVER_NAME,
'ssid': self._build_ssid('') }
def _build_ssid(self, suffix):
unique_salt = ''.join([random.choice(self.SUFFIX_LETTERS)
for x in range(5)])
return (self.ssid_prefix + unique_salt + suffix)[-32:]
def hostap_configure(self, configuration, multi_interface=None):
"""Build up a hostapd configuration file and start hostapd.
Also setup a local server if this router supports them.
@param configuration HosetapConfig object.
@param multi_interface bool True iff multiple interfaces allowed.
if multi_interface is None and (self.hostapd_instances or
# Start with the default hostapd config parameters.
conf = self.__get_default_hostap_config()
conf['ssid'] = (configuration.ssid or
if configuration.bssid:
conf['bssid'] = configuration.bssid
conf['channel'] =
conf['hw_mode'] = configuration.hw_mode
if configuration.hide_ssid:
conf['ignore_broadcast_ssid'] = 1
if configuration.is_11n:
conf['ieee80211n'] = 1
conf['ht_capab'] = configuration.hostapd_ht_capabilities
if configuration.wmm_enabled:
conf['wmm_enabled'] = 1
if configuration.require_ht:
conf['require_ht'] = 1
if configuration.beacon_interval:
conf['beacon_int'] = configuration.beacon_interval
if configuration.dtim_period:
conf['dtim_period'] = configuration.dtim_period
if configuration.frag_threshold:
conf['fragm_threshold'] = configuration.frag_threshold
if configuration.pmf_support:
conf['ieee80211w'] = configuration.pmf_support
if configuration.obss_interval:
conf['obss_interval'] = configuration.obss_interval
self.start_hostapd(conf, configuration)
interface = self.hostapd_instances[-1]['interface']
self.iw_runner.set_tx_power(interface, 'auto')
self.start_local_server(interface)'AP configured.')
def ip_addr(netblock, idx):
"""Simple IPv4 calculator.
Takes host address in "IP/bits" notation and returns netmask, broadcast
address as well as integer offsets into the address range.
@param netblock string host address in "IP/bits" notation.
@param idx string describing what to return.
@return string containing something you hopefully requested.
addr_str,bits = netblock.split('/')
addr = map(int, addr_str.split('.'))
mask_bits = (-1 << (32-int(bits))) & 0xffffffff
mask = [(mask_bits >> s) & 0xff for s in range(24, -1, -8)]
if idx == 'local':
return addr_str
elif idx == 'netmask':
return '.'.join(map(str, mask))
elif idx == 'broadcast':
offset = [m ^ 0xff for m in mask]
offset = [(idx >> s) & 0xff for s in range(24, -1, -8)]
return '.'.join(map(str, [(a & m) + o
for a, m, o in zip(addr, mask, offset)]))
def ibss_configure(self, config):
"""Configure a station based AP in IBSS mode.
Extract relevant configuration objects from |config| despite not
actually being a hostap managed endpoint.
@param config HostapConfig object.
if self.station_instances or self.hostapd_instances:
interface = self.get_wlanif(config.frequency, 'ibss')
ssid = (config.ssid or self._build_ssid(config.ssid_suffix))
# Connect the station'%s link set %s up' % (self.cmd_ip, interface))
self.iw_runner.ibss_join(interface, ssid, config.frequency)
# Always start a local server.
# Remember that this interface is up.
StationInstance(ssid=ssid, interface=interface,
def local_server_address(self, index):
"""Get the local server address for an interface.
When we multiple local servers, we give them static IP addresses
like 192.168.*.254.
@param index int describing which local server this is for.
return '%d.%d.%d.%d' % (self.SUBNET_PREFIX_OCTETS + (index, 254))
def local_peer_ip_address(self, index):
"""Get the IP address allocated for the peer associated to the AP.
This address is assigned to a locally associated peer device that
is created for the DUT to perform connectivity tests with.
When we have multiple local servers, we give them static IP addresses
like 192.168.*.253.
@param index int describing which local server this is for.
return '%d.%d.%d.%d' % (self.SUBNET_PREFIX_OCTETS + (index, 253))
def local_peer_mac_address(self):
"""Get the MAC address of the peer interface.
@return string MAC address of the peer interface.
iface = interface.Interface(self.station_instances[0].interface,
return iface.mac_address
def start_local_server(self, interface):
"""Start a local server on an interface.
@param interface string (e.g. wlan0)
""""Starting up local server...")
if len(self.local_servers) >= 256:
raise error.TestFail('Exhausted available local servers')
netblock = '%s/24' % self.local_server_address(len(self.local_servers))
params = {}
params['netblock'] = netblock
params['subnet'] = self.ip_addr(netblock, 0)
params['netmask'] = self.ip_addr(netblock, 'netmask')
params['dhcp_range'] = ' '.join(
(self.ip_addr(netblock, self.dhcp_low),
self.ip_addr(netblock, self.dhcp_high)))
params['interface'] = interface
params['ip_params'] = ("%s broadcast %s dev %s" %
self.ip_addr(netblock, 'broadcast'),
self.local_servers.append(params)"%s addr flush %s" %
(self.cmd_ip, interface))"%s addr add %s" %
(self.cmd_ip, params['ip_params']))"%s link set %s up" %
(self.cmd_ip, interface))
def start_dhcp_server(self, interface):
"""Start a dhcp server on an interface.
@param interface string (e.g. wlan0)
for server in self.local_servers:
if server['interface'] == interface:
params = server
raise error.TestFail('Could not find local server '
'to match interface: %r' % interface)
dhcpd_conf_file = self.dhcpd_conf % interface
dhcp_conf = '\n'.join([
'port=0', # disables DNS server
'dhcp-range=%s' % params['dhcp_range'].replace(' ', ','),
'interface=%s' % params['interface'],
'dhcp-leasefile=%s' % self.dhcpd_leases])'cat <<EOF >%s\n%s\nEOF\n' %
(dhcpd_conf_file, dhcp_conf))'dnsmasq --conf-file=%s' % dhcpd_conf_file)
def stop_dhcp_server(self, instance=None):
"""Stop a dhcp server on the router.
@param instance string instance to kill.
self._kill_process_instance('dnsmasq', instance, 0)
def stop_dhcp_servers(self):
"""Stop all dhcp servers on the router."""
def get_wifi_channel(self, ap_num):
"""Return channel of BSS corresponding to |ap_num|.
@param ap_num int which BSS to get the channel of.
@return int primary channel of BSS.
instance = self.hostapd_instances[ap_num]
return instance['config_dict']['channel']
def get_wifi_ip(self, ap_num):
"""Return IP address on the WiFi subnet of a local server on the router.
If no local servers are configured (e.g. for an RSPro), a TestFail will
be raised.
@param ap_num int which local server to get an address from.
if self.local_servers:
return self.ip_addr(self.local_servers[ap_num]['netblock'],
raise error.TestFail("No IP address assigned")
def get_hostapd_mac(self, ap_num):
"""Return the MAC address of an AP in the test.
@param ap_num int index of local server to read the MAC address from.
@return string MAC address like 00:11:22:33:44:55.
if not self.local_servers:
raise error.TestFail('Cannot retrieve MAC: '
'no AP instances configured.')
instance = self.hostapd_instances[ap_num]
ap_interface = interface.Interface(instance['interface'],
return ap_interface.mac_address
def deconfig(self):
"""A legacy, deprecated alias for deconfig_aps."""
def deconfig_aps(self, instance=None, silent=False):
"""De-configure an AP (will also bring wlan down).
@param instance: int or None. If instance is None, will bring down all
instances of hostapd.
@param silent: True if instances should be brought without de-authing
the DUT.
if not self.hostapd_instances and not self.station_instances:
if self.hostapd_instances:
local_servers = []
if instance is not None:
instances = [ self.hostapd_instances.pop(instance) ]
for server in self.local_servers:
if server['interface'] == instances[0]['interface']:
local_servers = [server]
instances = self.hostapd_instances
self.hostapd_instances = []
local_servers = self.local_servers
self.local_servers = []
for instance in instances:
if silent:
# Deconfigure without notifying DUT. Remove the interface
# hostapd uses to send beacon and DEAUTH packets.
if wifi_test_utils.is_installed(,
'debug/hostapd_router_%d_%s.log' %
logging.error('Did not collect hostapd log file because '
'it was missing.')
#"rm -f %(log_file)s %(conf_file)s" % instance)
self._total_hostapd_instances += 1
if self.station_instances:
local_servers = self.local_servers
self.local_servers = []
instance = self.station_instances.pop()
if instance.dev_type == 'ibss':
elif instance.dev_type == 'managed':
self.iw_runner.disconnect_station(instance.interface)'%s link set %s down' %
(self.cmd_ip, instance.interface))
for server in local_servers:
self.stop_dhcp_server(server['interface'])"%s addr del %s" %
(self.cmd_ip, server['ip_params']),
def confirm_pmksa_cache_use(self, instance=0):
"""Verify that the PMKSA auth was cached on a hostapd instance.
@param instance int router instance number.
log_file = self.hostapd_instances[instance]['log_file']
pmksa_match = 'PMK from PMKSA cache'
result ='grep -q "%s" %s' % (pmksa_match, log_file),
if result.exit_status:
raise error.TestFail('PMKSA cache was not used in roaming.')
def get_ssid(self, instance=None):
"""@return string ssid for the network stemming from this router."""
if instance is None:
instance = 0
if len(self.hostapd_instances) > 1:
raise error.TestFail('No instance of hostapd specified with '
'multiple instances present.')
if self.hostapd_instances:
return self.hostapd_instances[instance]['ssid']
if self.station_instances:
return self.station_instances[0].ssid
raise error.TestFail('Requested ssid of an unconfigured AP.')
def deauth_client(self, client_mac):
"""Deauthenticates a client described in params.
@param client_mac string containing the mac address of the client to be
control_if = self.hostapd_instances[-1]['config_dict']['ctrl_interface']'%s -p%s deauthenticate %s' %
(self.cmd_hostapd_cli, control_if, client_mac))
def send_management_frame(self, frame_type, instance=0):
"""Injects a management frame into an active hostapd session.
@param frame_type string the type of frame to send.
@param instance int indicating which hostapd instance to inject into.
hostap_interface = self.hostapd_instances[instance]['interface']
interface = self.get_wlanif(0, 'monitor', same_phy_as=hostap_interface)"%s link set %s up" % (self.cmd_ip, interface))'%s %s %s' %
(self.cmd_send_management_frame, interface, frame_type))
def detect_client_deauth(self, client_mac, instance=0):
"""Detects whether hostapd has logged a deauthentication from
@param client_mac string the MAC address of the client to detect.
@param instance int indicating which hostapd instance to query.
interface = self.hostapd_instances[instance]['interface']
deauth_msg = "%s: deauthentication: STA=%s" % (interface, client_mac)
log_file = self.hostapd_instances[instance]['log_file']
result ="grep -qi '%s' %s" % (deauth_msg, log_file),
return result.exit_status == 0
def detect_client_coexistence_report(self, client_mac, instance=0):
"""Detects whether hostapd has logged an action frame from
|client_mac| indicating information about 20/40MHz BSS coexistence.
@param client_mac string the MAC address of the client to detect.
@param instance int indicating which hostapd instance to query.
coex_msg = ('nl80211: MLME event frame - hexdump(len=.*): '
'.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. %s '
'.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 04 00.*48 01 ..' %
' '.join(client_mac.split(':')))
log_file = self.hostapd_instances[instance]['log_file']
result ="grep -qi '%s' %s" % (coex_msg, log_file),
return result.exit_status == 0
def add_connected_peer(self, instance=0):
"""Configure a station connected to a running AP instance.
Extract relevant configuration objects from the hostap
configuration for |instance| and generate a wpa_supplicant
instance that connects to it. This allows the DUT to interact
with a client entity that is also connected to the same AP. A
full wpa_supplicant instance is necessary here (instead of just
using the "iw" command to connect) since we want to enable
advanced features such as TDLS.
@param instance int indicating which hostapd instance to connect to.
if not self.hostapd_instances:
raise error.TestFail('Hostapd is not configured.')
if self.station_instances:
raise error.TestFail('Station is already configured.')
ssid = self.get_ssid(instance)
hostap_conf = self.hostapd_instances[instance]['config_dict']
frequency = hostap_config.HostapConfig.get_frequency_for_channel(
interface = self.get_wlanif(frequency, 'managed')
# TODO(pstew): Configure other bits like PSK, 802.11n if tests
# require them...
supplicant_config = (
' ssid="%(ssid)s"\n'
' key_mgmt=NONE\n'
'}\n' % {'ssid': ssid}
conf_file = self.STATION_CONF_FILE_PATTERN % interface
log_file = self.STATION_LOG_FILE_PATTERN % interface
pid_file = self.STATION_PID_FILE_PATTERN % interface'cat <<EOF >%s\n%s\nEOF\n' %
(conf_file, supplicant_config))
# Connect the station.'%s link set %s up' % (self.cmd_ip, interface))
start_command = ('%s -dd -t -i%s -P%s -c%s -D%s &> %s &' %
interface, pid_file, conf_file,
self.HOSTAPD_DRIVER_NAME, log_file))
# Assign an IP address to this interface.'%s addr add %s/24 dev %s' %
(self.cmd_ip, self.local_peer_ip_address(instance),
# Since we now have two network interfaces connected to the same
# network, we need to disable the kernel's protection against
# incoming packets to an "unexpected" interface.'echo 2 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/%s/rp_filter' %
# Similarly, we'd like to prevent the hostap interface from
# replying to ARP requests for the peer IP address and vice
# versa.'echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/%s/arp_ignore' %
interface)'echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/%s/arp_ignore' %
StationInstance(ssid=ssid, interface=interface,