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# Copyright (c) 2010 The Chromium OS Authors. All rights reserved.
# Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style license that can be
# found in the LICENSE file.
import collections
import logging
import random
import string
import time
from autotest_lib.client.common_lib import error
from import interface
from import netblock
from autotest_lib.server import site_linux_system
from autotest_lib.server.cros import wifi_test_utils
from import hostap_config
StationInstance = collections.namedtuple('StationInstance',
['ssid', 'interface', 'dev_type'])
class LinuxRouter(site_linux_system.LinuxSystem):
"""Linux/mac80211-style WiFi Router support for WiFiTest class.
This class implements test methods/steps that communicate with a
router implemented with Linux/mac80211. The router must
be pre-configured to enable ssh access and have a mac80211-based
wireless device. We also assume hostapd 0.7.x and iw are present
and any necessary modules are pre-loaded.
KNOWN_TEST_PREFIX = 'network_WiFi_'
SUFFIX_LETTERS = string.ascii_lowercase + string.digits
HOSTAPD_CONF_FILE_PATTERN = '/tmp/hostapd-test-%s.conf'
HOSTAPD_LOG_FILE_PATTERN = '/tmp/hostapd-test-%s.log'
HOSTAPD_CONTROL_INTERFACE_PATTERN = '/tmp/hostapd-test-%s.ctrl'
STATION_CONF_FILE_PATTERN = '/tmp/wpa-supplicant-test-%s.conf'
STATION_LOG_FILE_PATTERN = '/tmp/wpa-supplicant-test-%s.log'
MGMT_FRAME_SENDER_LOG_FILE = '/tmp/send_management_frame-test.log'
def get_capabilities(self):
"""@return iterable object of AP capabilities for this system."""
caps = set([self.CAPABILITY_IBSS])
self.cmd_send_management_frame = wifi_test_utils.must_be_installed(, '/usr/bin/send_management_frame')
except error.TestFail:
return super(LinuxRouter, self).get_capabilities().union(caps)
def router(self):
"""Deprecated. Use instead.
@return Host object representing the remote router.
def wifi_ip(self):
"""Simple accessor for the WiFi IP when there is only one AP.
@return string IP of WiFi interface.
if len(self.local_servers) != 1:
raise error.TestError('Could not pick a WiFi IP to return.')
return self.get_wifi_ip(0)
def __init__(self, host, test_name):
"""Build a LinuxRouter.
@param host Host object representing the remote machine.
@param test_name string name of this test. Used in SSID creation.
super(LinuxRouter, self).__init__(host, 'router')
self.cmd_dhcpd = '/usr/sbin/dhcpd'
self.cmd_hostapd = wifi_test_utils.must_be_installed(
host, '/usr/sbin/hostapd')
self.cmd_hostapd_cli = wifi_test_utils.must_be_installed(
host, '/usr/sbin/hostapd_cli')
self.cmd_wpa_supplicant = wifi_test_utils.must_be_installed(
host, '/usr/sbin/wpa_supplicant')
self.dhcpd_conf = '/tmp/dhcpd.%s.conf'
self.dhcpd_leases = '/tmp/dhcpd.leases'
# hostapd configuration persists throughout the test, subsequent
# 'config' commands only modify it.
self._ssid_prefix = test_name
if self._ssid_prefix.startswith(self.KNOWN_TEST_PREFIX):
# Many of our tests start with an uninteresting prefix.
# Remove it so we can have more unique bytes.
self._ssid_prefix = self._ssid_prefix[len(self.KNOWN_TEST_PREFIX):]
self._number_unique_ssids = 0
self._total_hostapd_instances = 0
self.local_servers = []
self.hostapd_instances = []
self.station_instances = []
self.dhcp_low = 1
self.dhcp_high = 128
# Kill hostapd and dhcp server if already running.
# Place us in the US by default
# Reset all antennas to be active
def close(self):
"""Close global resources held by this system."""
super(LinuxRouter, self).close()
def has_local_server(self):
"""@return True iff this router has local servers configured."""
return bool(self.local_servers)
def start_hostapd(self, configuration):
"""Start a hostapd instance described by conf.
@param configuration HostapConfig object.
# Figure out the correct interface.
interface = self.get_wlanif(configuration.frequency, 'managed')
conf_file = self.HOSTAPD_CONF_FILE_PATTERN % interface
log_file = self.HOSTAPD_LOG_FILE_PATTERN % interface
control_interface = self.HOSTAPD_CONTROL_INTERFACE_PATTERN % interface
hostapd_conf_dict = configuration.generate_dict(
interface, control_interface,
logging.debug('hostapd parameters: %r', hostapd_conf_dict)
# Generate hostapd.conf."cat <<EOF >%s\n%s\nEOF\n" %
(conf_file, '\n'.join(
"%s=%s" % kv for kv in hostapd_conf_dict.iteritems())))
# Run hostapd.'Starting hostapd on %s(%s) channel=%s...',
interface, self.iw_runner.get_interface(interface).phy,'rm %s' % log_file, ignore_status=True)'stop wpasupplicant', ignore_status=True)
start_command = '%s -dd -t %s &> %s & echo $!' % (
self.cmd_hostapd, conf_file, log_file)
pid = int(
'ssid': hostapd_conf_dict['ssid'],
'conf_file': conf_file,
'log_file': log_file,
'interface': interface,
'config_dict': hostapd_conf_dict.copy()
# Wait for confirmation that the router came up.'Waiting for hostapd to startup.')
start_time = time.time()
while time.time() - start_time < self.STARTUP_TIMEOUT_SECONDS:
success =
'grep "Completing interface initialization" %s' % log_file,
ignore_status=True).exit_status == 0
if success:
# A common failure is an invalid router configuration.
# Detect this and exit early if we see it.
bad_config =
'grep "Interface initialization failed" %s' % log_file,
ignore_status=True).exit_status == 0
if bad_config:
raise error.TestFail('hostapd failed to initialize AP '
if pid:
early_exit ='kill -0 %d' % pid,
if early_exit:
raise error.TestFail('hostapd process terminated.')
raise error.TestFail('Timed out while waiting for hostapd '
'to start.')
def _kill_process_instance(self, process, instance=None, wait=0):
"""Kill a process on the router.
Kills program named |process|, optionally only a specific
|instance|. If |wait| is specified, we makes sure |process| exits
before returning.
@param process string name of process to kill.
@param instance string instance of process to kill.
@param wait int timeout in seconds to wait for.
if instance:
search_arg = '-f "%s.*%s"' % (process, instance)
search_arg = process
cmd = "pkill %s >/dev/null 2>&1" % search_arg
if wait:
cmd += (" && while pgrep %s &> /dev/null; do sleep 1; done" %
search_arg), timeout=wait, ignore_status=True)
else:, ignore_status=True)
def kill_hostapd_instance(self, instance):
"""Kills a hostapd instance.
@param instance string instance to kill.
self._kill_process_instance('hostapd', instance, 30)
def kill_hostapd(self):
"""Kill all hostapd instances."""
def _build_unique_ssid(self, suffix):
# Build our unique token by base-<len(self.SUFFIX_LETTERS)> encoding
# the number of APs we've constructed already.
base = len(self.SUFFIX_LETTERS)
number = self._number_unique_ssids
self._number_unique_ssids += 1
unique = ''
while number or not unique:
unique = self.SUFFIX_LETTERS[number % base] + unique
number = number / base
# And salt the SSID so that tests running in adjacent cells are unlikely
# to pick the same SSID and we're resistent to beacons leaking out of
# cells.
salt = ''.join([random.choice(self.SUFFIX_LETTERS) for x in range(5)])
return '_'.join([self._ssid_prefix, unique, salt, suffix])[-32:]
def hostap_configure(self, configuration, multi_interface=None):
"""Build up a hostapd configuration file and start hostapd.
Also setup a local server if this router supports them.
@param configuration HosetapConfig object.
@param multi_interface bool True iff multiple interfaces allowed.
if multi_interface is None and (self.hostapd_instances or
interface = self.hostapd_instances[-1]['interface']
self.iw_runner.set_tx_power(interface, 'auto')
self.start_local_server(interface)'AP configured.')
def ibss_configure(self, config):
"""Configure a station based AP in IBSS mode.
Extract relevant configuration objects from |config| despite not
actually being a hostap managed endpoint.
@param config HostapConfig object.
if self.station_instances or self.hostapd_instances:
interface = self.get_wlanif(config.frequency, 'ibss')
ssid = (config.ssid or self._build_unique_ssid(config.ssid_suffix))
# Connect the station'%s link set %s up' % (self.cmd_ip, interface))
self.iw_runner.ibss_join(interface, ssid, config.frequency)
# Always start a local server.
# Remember that this interface is up.
StationInstance(ssid=ssid, interface=interface,
def local_server_address(self, index):
"""Get the local server address for an interface.
When we multiple local servers, we give them static IP addresses
like 192.168.*.254.
@param index int describing which local server this is for.
return '%d.%d.%d.%d' % (self.SUBNET_PREFIX_OCTETS + (index, 254))
def local_peer_ip_address(self, index):
"""Get the IP address allocated for the peer associated to the AP.
This address is assigned to a locally associated peer device that
is created for the DUT to perform connectivity tests with.
When we have multiple local servers, we give them static IP addresses
like 192.168.*.253.
@param index int describing which local server this is for.
return '%d.%d.%d.%d' % (self.SUBNET_PREFIX_OCTETS + (index, 253))
def local_peer_mac_address(self):
"""Get the MAC address of the peer interface.
@return string MAC address of the peer interface.
iface = interface.Interface(self.station_instances[0].interface,
return iface.mac_address
def start_local_server(self, interface):
"""Start a local server on an interface.
@param interface string (e.g. wlan0)
"""'Starting up local server...')
if len(self.local_servers) >= 256:
raise error.TestFail('Exhausted available local servers')
server_addr = netblock.Netblock.from_addr(
params = {}
params['netblock'] = server_addr
params['dhcp_range'] = ' '.join(
params['interface'] = interface
params['ip_params'] = ('%s broadcast %s dev %s' %
self.local_servers.append(params)'%s addr flush %s' %
(self.cmd_ip, interface))'%s addr add %s' %
(self.cmd_ip, params['ip_params']))'%s link set %s up' %
(self.cmd_ip, interface))
def start_dhcp_server(self, interface):
"""Start a dhcp server on an interface.
@param interface string (e.g. wlan0)
for server in self.local_servers:
if server['interface'] == interface:
params = server
raise error.TestFail('Could not find local server '
'to match interface: %r' % interface)
server_addr = params['netblock']
dhcpd_conf_file = self.dhcpd_conf % interface
dhcp_conf = '\n'.join([
'port=0', # disables DNS server
'dhcp-range=%s' % ','.join((server_addr.get_addr_in_block(1),
'interface=%s' % params['interface'],
'dhcp-leasefile=%s' % self.dhcpd_leases])'cat <<EOF >%s\n%s\nEOF\n' %
(dhcpd_conf_file, dhcp_conf))'dnsmasq --conf-file=%s' % dhcpd_conf_file)
def stop_dhcp_server(self, instance=None):
"""Stop a dhcp server on the router.
@param instance string instance to kill.
self._kill_process_instance('dnsmasq', instance, 0)
def stop_dhcp_servers(self):
"""Stop all dhcp servers on the router."""
def get_wifi_channel(self, ap_num):
"""Return channel of BSS corresponding to |ap_num|.
@param ap_num int which BSS to get the channel of.
@return int primary channel of BSS.
instance = self.hostapd_instances[ap_num]
return instance['config_dict']['channel']
def get_wifi_ip(self, ap_num):
"""Return IP address on the WiFi subnet of a local server on the router.
If no local servers are configured (e.g. for an RSPro), a TestFail will
be raised.
@param ap_num int which local server to get an address from.
if not self.local_servers:
raise error.TestError('No IP address assigned')
return self.local_servers[ap_num]['netblock'].addr
def get_wifi_ip_subnet(self, ap_num):
"""Return subnet of WiFi AP instance.
If no APs are configured a TestError will be raised.
@param ap_num int which local server to get an address from.
if not self.local_servers:
raise error.TestError('No APs configured.')
return self.local_servers[ap_num]['netblock'].subnet
def get_hostapd_interface(self, ap_num):
"""Get the name of the interface associated with a hostapd instance.
@param ap_num: int hostapd instance number.
@return string interface name (e.g. 'managed0').
if ap_num not in range(len(self.hostapd_instances)):
raise error.TestFail('Invalid instance number (%d) with %d '
'instances configured.' %
(ap_num, len(self.hostapd_instances)))
instance = self.hostapd_instances[ap_num]
return instance['interface']
def get_hostapd_mac(self, ap_num):
"""Return the MAC address of an AP in the test.
@param ap_num int index of local server to read the MAC address from.
@return string MAC address like 00:11:22:33:44:55.
interface_name = self.get_hostapd_interface(ap_num)
ap_interface = interface.Interface(interface_name,
return ap_interface.mac_address
def get_hostapd_phy(self, ap_num):
"""Get name of phy for hostapd instance.
@param ap_num int index of hostapd instance.
@return string phy name of phy corresponding to hostapd's
managed interface.
interface = self.iw_runner.get_interface(
return interface.phy
def deconfig(self):
"""A legacy, deprecated alias for deconfig_aps."""
def deconfig_aps(self, instance=None, silent=False):
"""De-configure an AP (will also bring wlan down).
@param instance: int or None. If instance is None, will bring down all
instances of hostapd.
@param silent: True if instances should be brought without de-authing
the DUT.
if not self.hostapd_instances and not self.station_instances:
if self.hostapd_instances:
local_servers = []
if instance is not None:
instances = [ self.hostapd_instances.pop(instance) ]
for server in self.local_servers:
if server['interface'] == instances[0]['interface']:
local_servers = [server]
instances = self.hostapd_instances
self.hostapd_instances = []
local_servers = self.local_servers
self.local_servers = []
for instance in instances:
if silent:
# Deconfigure without notifying DUT. Remove the interface
# hostapd uses to send beacon and DEAUTH packets.
if wifi_test_utils.is_installed(,
'debug/hostapd_router_%d_%s.log' %
logging.error('Did not collect hostapd log file because '
'it was missing.')
#"rm -f %(log_file)s %(conf_file)s" % instance)
self._total_hostapd_instances += 1
if self.station_instances:
local_servers = self.local_servers
self.local_servers = []
instance = self.station_instances.pop()
if instance.dev_type == 'ibss':
elif instance.dev_type == 'managed':
self.iw_runner.disconnect_station(instance.interface)'%s link set %s down' %
(self.cmd_ip, instance.interface))
for server in local_servers:
self.stop_dhcp_server(server['interface'])"%s addr del %s" %
(self.cmd_ip, server['ip_params']),
def confirm_pmksa_cache_use(self, instance=0):
"""Verify that the PMKSA auth was cached on a hostapd instance.
@param instance int router instance number.
log_file = self.hostapd_instances[instance]['log_file']
pmksa_match = 'PMK from PMKSA cache'
result ='grep -q "%s" %s' % (pmksa_match, log_file),
if result.exit_status:
raise error.TestFail('PMKSA cache was not used in roaming.')
def get_ssid(self, instance=None):
"""@return string ssid for the network stemming from this router."""
if instance is None:
instance = 0
if len(self.hostapd_instances) > 1:
raise error.TestFail('No instance of hostapd specified with '
'multiple instances present.')
if self.hostapd_instances:
return self.hostapd_instances[instance]['ssid']
if self.station_instances:
return self.station_instances[0].ssid
raise error.TestFail('Requested ssid of an unconfigured AP.')
def deauth_client(self, client_mac):
"""Deauthenticates a client described in params.
@param client_mac string containing the mac address of the client to be
control_if = self.hostapd_instances[-1]['config_dict']['ctrl_interface']'%s -p%s deauthenticate %s' %
(self.cmd_hostapd_cli, control_if, client_mac))
def send_management_frame_on_ap(self, frame_type, channel, instance=0):
"""Injects a management frame into an active hostapd session.
@param frame_type string the type of frame to send.
@param channel int targeted channel
@param instance int indicating which hostapd instance to inject into.
hostap_interface = self.hostapd_instances[instance]['interface']
interface = self.get_wlanif(0, 'monitor', same_phy_as=hostap_interface)"%s link set %s up" % (self.cmd_ip, interface))'%s -i %s -t %s -c %d' %
(self.cmd_send_management_frame, interface, frame_type,
def setup_management_frame_interface(self, channel):
Setup interface for injecting management frames.
@param channel int channel to inject the frames.
@return string name of the interface.
frequency = hostap_config.HostapConfig.get_frequency_for_channel(
interface = self.get_wlanif(frequency, 'monitor')
self.iw_runner.set_freq(interface, frequency)'%s link set %s up' % (self.cmd_ip, interface))
return interface
def send_management_frame(self, interface, frame_type, channel,
ssid_prefix=None, num_bss=None,
frame_count=None, delay=None):
Injects management frames on specify channel |frequency|.
This function will spawn off a new process to inject specified
management frames |frame_type| at the specified interface |interface|.
@param interface string interface to inject frames.
@param frame_type string message type.
@param channel int targeted channel.
@param ssid_prefix string SSID prefix.
@param num_bss int number of BSS.
@param frame_count int number of frames to send.
@param delay int milliseconds delay between frames.
@return int PID of the newly created process.
command = '%s -i %s -t %s -c %d' % (self.cmd_send_management_frame,
interface, frame_type, channel)
if ssid_prefix is not None:
command += ' -s %s' % (ssid_prefix)
if num_bss is not None:
command += ' -b %d' % (num_bss)
if frame_count is not None:
command += ' -n %d' % (frame_count)
if delay is not None:
command += ' -d %d' % (delay)
command += ' > %s 2>&1 & echo $!' % (self.MGMT_FRAME_SENDER_LOG_FILE)
pid = int(
return pid
def detect_client_deauth(self, client_mac, instance=0):
"""Detects whether hostapd has logged a deauthentication from
@param client_mac string the MAC address of the client to detect.
@param instance int indicating which hostapd instance to query.
interface = self.hostapd_instances[instance]['interface']
deauth_msg = "%s: deauthentication: STA=%s" % (interface, client_mac)
log_file = self.hostapd_instances[instance]['log_file']
result ="grep -qi '%s' %s" % (deauth_msg, log_file),
return result.exit_status == 0
def detect_client_coexistence_report(self, client_mac, instance=0):
"""Detects whether hostapd has logged an action frame from
|client_mac| indicating information about 20/40MHz BSS coexistence.
@param client_mac string the MAC address of the client to detect.
@param instance int indicating which hostapd instance to query.
coex_msg = ('nl80211: MLME event frame - hexdump(len=.*): '
'.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. %s '
'.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 04 00.*48 01 ..' %
' '.join(client_mac.split(':')))
log_file = self.hostapd_instances[instance]['log_file']
result ="grep -qi '%s' %s" % (coex_msg, log_file),
return result.exit_status == 0
def add_connected_peer(self, instance=0):
"""Configure a station connected to a running AP instance.
Extract relevant configuration objects from the hostap
configuration for |instance| and generate a wpa_supplicant
instance that connects to it. This allows the DUT to interact
with a client entity that is also connected to the same AP. A
full wpa_supplicant instance is necessary here (instead of just
using the "iw" command to connect) since we want to enable
advanced features such as TDLS.
@param instance int indicating which hostapd instance to connect to.
if not self.hostapd_instances:
raise error.TestFail('Hostapd is not configured.')
if self.station_instances:
raise error.TestFail('Station is already configured.')
ssid = self.get_ssid(instance)
hostap_conf = self.hostapd_instances[instance]['config_dict']
frequency = hostap_config.HostapConfig.get_frequency_for_channel(
interface = self.get_wlanif(frequency, 'managed')
# TODO(pstew): Configure other bits like PSK, 802.11n if tests
# require them...
supplicant_config = (
' ssid="%(ssid)s"\n'
' key_mgmt=NONE\n'
'}\n' % {'ssid': ssid}
conf_file = self.STATION_CONF_FILE_PATTERN % interface
log_file = self.STATION_LOG_FILE_PATTERN % interface
pid_file = self.STATION_PID_FILE_PATTERN % interface'cat <<EOF >%s\n%s\nEOF\n' %
(conf_file, supplicant_config))
# Connect the station.'%s link set %s up' % (self.cmd_ip, interface))
start_command = ('%s -dd -t -i%s -P%s -c%s -D%s &> %s &' %
interface, pid_file, conf_file,
self.HOSTAPD_DRIVER_NAME, log_file))
# Assign an IP address to this interface.'%s addr add %s/24 dev %s' %
(self.cmd_ip, self.local_peer_ip_address(instance),
# Since we now have two network interfaces connected to the same
# network, we need to disable the kernel's protection against
# incoming packets to an "unexpected" interface.'echo 2 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/%s/rp_filter' %
# Similarly, we'd like to prevent the hostap interface from
# replying to ARP requests for the peer IP address and vice
# versa.'echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/%s/arp_ignore' %
interface)'echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/%s/arp_ignore' %
StationInstance(ssid=ssid, interface=interface,