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# Copyright (c) 2012 The Chromium OS Authors. All rights reserved.
# Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style license that can be
# found in the LICENSE file.
"""Methods and Classes to support RAPL power access.
Intel processors (Sandybridge and beyond) provide access to a set of registers
via the MSR interface to control and measure energy/power consumption. These
RAPL ( Running Average Power Limit ) registers can be queried and written to
change and evaluate power consumption on the CPU.
See 'Intel 64 and IA-32 Architectures Software Developer's Manual Volume 3'
(Section 14.9) for complete details.
1. Investigate exposing access to control Power policy. Current implementation
just surveys consumption via energy status registers.
import logging
import os
import time
from autotest_lib.client.bin import utils
from autotest_lib.client.common_lib import error
from autotest_lib.client.cros import power_status
from autotest_lib.client.cros import power_utils
from numpy import uint32
VALID_DOMAINS = ['pkg', 'pp0', 'gfx', 'dram']
def get_rapl_measurement(tname, exe_function=time.sleep, exe_args=(10,),
"""Get rapl measurement.
@param name: String of test name.
@param exe_function: function that should be executed during measuring
rapl readings.
@param exe_args: tuple of args to be passed into exe_function.
@param exe_kwargs: dict of args to be passed into exe_function.
"""'Now measuring rapl power consumption.')
measurement = []
if power_utils.has_rapl_support():
measurement += create_rapl()
power_logger = power_status.PowerLogger(measurement)
with power_logger.checkblock(tname):
exe_function(*exe_args, **exe_kwargs)
keyval = power_logger.calc()
return keyval
def create_rapl(domains=None):
"""Create a set of Rapl instances.
domains: list of strings, representing desired RAPL domains to
list of Rapl objects.
error.TestFail: If domain is invalid.
if not domains:
rapl_list = []
for domain in set(domains):
return rapl_list
class Rapl(power_status.PowerMeasurement):
"""Class to expose RAPL functionality.
Public attibutes:
domain: string, name of power rail domain.
Private attributes:
_joules_per_lsb: float, joules per lsb of energy.
_joules_start: float, joules measured at the beginning of operation.
_time_start: float, time in seconds since Epoch.
Public methods:
refresh(): Refreshes starting point of RAPL power measurement and
returns power in watts.
_DOMAIN_MSRS = {'pkg': {'power_limit': 0x610,
'energy_status': 0x611,
'perf_status': 0x613,
'power_info': 0x614},
'pp0': {'power_limit': 0x638,
'energy_status': 0x639,
'policy': 0x63a,
'perf_status': 0x63b},
'gfx': {'power_limit': 0x640,
'energy_status': 0x641,
'policy': 0x642},
'dram': {'power_limit': 0x618,
'energy_status': 0x619,
'perf_status': 0x61b,
'power_info': 0x61c}}
# Units for Power, Energy & Time
# Maximum number of seconds allowable between energy status samples. See
# docstring in power method for complete details.
def __init__(self, domain):
"""Constructor for Rapl class.
domain: string, name of power rail domain
error.TestError: If domain is invalid
if domain not in VALID_DOMAINS:
raise error.TestError("domain %s not in valid domains ( %s )" %
(domain, ", ".join(VALID_DOMAINS)))
super(Rapl, self).__init__(domain)
self._joules_per_lsb = self._get_joules_per_lsb()
logging.debug("RAPL %s joules_per_lsb = %.3e", domain,
self._joules_start = self._get_energy()
self._time_start = time.time()
def __del__(self):
"""Deconstructor for Rapl class.
error.TestError: If the joules per lsb changed during sampling time.
if self._get_joules_per_lsb() != self._joules_per_lsb:
raise error.TestError("Results suspect as joules_per_lsb changed "
"during sampling")
def _rdmsr(self, msr, cpu_id=0):
"""Read MSR ( Model Specific Register )
Read MSR value for x86 systems.
msr: Integer, address of MSR.
cpu_id: Integer, number of CPU to read MSR for. Default 0.
Integer, representing the requested MSR register.
return int(utils.system_output('iotools rdmsr %d %d' %
(cpu_id, msr)), 0)
def _get_joules_per_lsb(self):
"""Calculate and return energy in joules per lsb.
Value used as a multiplier while reading the RAPL energy status MSR.
Float, value of joules per lsb.
msr_val = self._rdmsr(self._POWER_UNIT_MSR)
return 1.0 / pow(2, (msr_val & self._ENERGY_UNIT_MASK) >>
def _get_energy(self):
"""Get energy reading.
Integer (32-bit), representing total energy consumed since power-on.
msr = self._DOMAIN_MSRS[self.domain]['energy_status']
return uint32(self._rdmsr(msr))
def domain(self):
"""Convenience method to expose Rapl instance domain name.
string, name of Rapl domain.
return self.domain
def refresh(self):
"""Calculate the average power used for RAPL domain.
Note, Intel doc says ~60secs but in practice it seems much longer on
laptop class devices. Using numpy's uint32 correctly calculates single
wraparound. Risk is whether wraparound occurs multiple times. As the
RAPL facilities don't provide any way to identify multiple wraparounds
it does present a risk to long samples. To remedy, method raises an
exception for long measurements that should be well below the multiple
wraparound window. Length of time between measurements must be managed
by periodic logger instantiating this object to avoid the exception.
float, average power (in watts) over the last time interval tracked.
error.TestError: If time between measurements too great.
joules_now = self._get_energy()
time_now = time.time()
energy_used = (joules_now - self._joules_start) * self._joules_per_lsb
time_used = time_now - self._time_start
if time_used > self._MAX_MEAS_SECS:
raise error.TestError("Time between reads of %s energy status "
"register was > %d seconds" % \
(self.domain, self._MAX_MEAS_SECS))
average_power = energy_used / time_used
self._joules_start = joules_now
self._time_start = time_now
return average_power
def create_powercap():
"""Create a list of Powercap instances of PowerMeasurement
A list of Powercap objects.
powercap = '/sys/devices/virtual/powercap/intel-rapl/'
# Failsafe check
if not os.path.isdir(powercap):
logging.debug("RAPL: no powercap driver found")
return []
rapl_map = {}
for root, dir, file in os.walk(powercap):
if os.path.isfile(root + '/energy_uj'):
with open(root + '/name', 'r') as fn:
name =
rapl_map[name] = root + '/energy_uj'
return [Powercap(name, path) for name, path in rapl_map.iteritems()]
class Powercap(power_status.PowerMeasurement):
"""Classes to support RAPL power measurement via powercap sysfs
This class utilizes the subset of Linux powercap driver to report
energy consumption, in this manner, we do not need microarchitecture
knowledge in userspace program.
For more detail of powercap framework, readers could refer to:
Private attributes:
_file: sysfs reporting energy of the particular RAPL domain.
_energy_start: float, micro-joule measured at the beginning.
_time_start: float, time in seconds since Epoch.
def __init__(self, name, path):
"""Constructor for Powercap class.
super(Powercap, self).__init__(name)
self._file = open(path, 'r')
self._energy_start = self._get_energy()
self._time_start = time.time()
logging.debug("RAPL: monitor domain %s", name)
def __del__(self):
"""Deconstructor for Powercap class.
def _get_energy(self):
"""Get energy reading in micro-joule unit.
return int(
def refresh(self):
"""Calculate the average power used per RAPL domain.
energy_now = self._get_energy()
time_now = time.time()
energy_used = (energy_now - self._energy_start) / 1000000.0
time_used = time_now - self._time_start
average_power = energy_used / time_used
self._energy_start = energy_now
self._time_start = time_now
return average_power