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-*- Text -*-
This is the GRUB. Welcome.
This file contains instructions for compiling and installing the GRUB.
The Requirements
GRUB depends on some software packages installed into your system. If
you don't have any of them, please obtain and install them before
configuring the GRUB.
* GCC 4.1.3 or later
Note: older versions may work but support is limited
Experimental support for clang 3.3 or later (results in much bigger binaries)
for i386, x86_64, arm (including thumb), arm64, mips(el), powerpc, sparc64
Note: clang 3.2 or later works for i386 and x86_64 targets but results in
much bigger binaries.
earlier versions not tested
Note: clang 3.2 or later works for arm
earlier versions not tested
Note: clang on arm64 is not supported due to
Note: clang 3.3 or later works for mips(el)
earlier versions fail to generate .reginfo and hence gprel relocations
Note: clang 3.2 or later works for powerpc
earlier versions not tested
Note: clang 3.5 or later works for sparc64
earlier versions return "error: unable to interface with target machine"
Note: clang has no support for ia64 and hence you can't compile GRUB
for ia64 with clang
* GNU Make
* GNU Bison 2.3 or later
* GNU gettext 0.17 or later
* GNU binutils or later
* Flex 2.5.35 or later
* Other standard GNU/Unix tools
* a libc with large file support (e.g. glibc 2.1 or later)
On GNU/Linux, you also need:
* libdevmapper 1.02.34 or later (recommended)
For optional grub-emu features, you need:
* SDL (recommended)
* libpciaccess (optional)
* libusb (optional)
To build GRUB's graphical terminal (gfxterm), you need:
* FreeType 2 or later
* GNU Unifont
If you use a development snapshot or want to hack on GRUB you may
need the following.
* Python 2.6 or later
* Autoconf 2.60 or later
* Automake 1.10.1 or later
Prerequisites for make-check:
* qemu, specifically the binary 'qemu-system-i386'
* xorriso 1.2.9 or later, for grub-mkrescue and grub-shell
Configuring the GRUB
The `configure' shell script attempts to guess correct values for
various system-dependent variables used during compilation. It uses
those values to create a `Makefile' in each directory of the package.
It may also create one or more `.h' files containing system-dependent
definitions. Finally, it creates a shell script `config.status' that
you can run in the future to recreate the current configuration, a
file `config.cache' that saves the results of its tests to speed up
reconfiguring, and a file `config.log' containing compiler output
(useful mainly for debugging `configure').
If you need to do unusual things to compile the package, please try to
figure out how `configure' could check whether to do them, and mail
diffs or instructions to the address given in the `README' so they can
be considered for the next release. If at some point `config.cache'
contains results you don't want to keep, you may remove or edit it.
The file `' is used to create `configure' by a program
called `autoconf'. You only need `' if you want to change
it or regenerate `configure' using a newer version of `autoconf'.
Building the GRUB
The simplest way to compile this package is:
1. `cd' to the directory containing the package's source code.
2. Skip this and following step if you use release tarball and proceed to
step 4. If you want translations type `./'.
3. Type `./'.
* uses python. By default invocation is "python" but can be
overriden by setting variable $PYTHON.
4. Type `./configure' to configure the package for your system.
If you're using `csh' on an old version of System V, you might
need to type `sh ./configure' instead to prevent `csh' from trying
to execute `configure' itself.
Running `configure' takes awhile. While running, it prints some
messages telling which features it is checking for.
6. Type `make' to compile the package.
7. Optionally, type `make check' to run any self-tests that come with
the package.
8. Type `make install' to install the programs and any data files and
9. You can remove the program binaries and object files from the
source code directory by typing `make clean'. To also remove the
files that `configure' created (so you can compile the package for
a different kind of computer), type `make distclean'. There is
also a `make maintainer-clean' target, but that is intended mainly
for the package's developers. If you use it, you may have to get
all sorts of other programs in order to regenerate files that came
with the distribution.
Cross-compiling the GRUB
GRUB defines 3 platforms:
- "Build" is the one which build systems runs on.
- "Host" is where you execute GRUB utils.
- "Target" is where GRUB itself runs.
For grub-emu host and target must be the same but may differ from build.
If build and host are different make check isn't available.
If build and host are different man pages are not generated.
As an example imagine you have a build system running on FreeBSD on sparc
which prepares packages for developers running amd64 GNU/Linux laptop and
they need to make images for ARM board running U-boot. In this case:
For this example the configure line might look like (more details below)
(some options are optional and included here for completeness but some rarely
used options are omitted):
./configure BUILD_CC=gcc BUILD_FREETYPE=freetype-config --host=amd64-linux-gnu
CC=amd64-linux-gnu-gcc CFLAGS="-g -O2" FREETYPE=amd64-linux-gnu-freetype-config
--target=arm --with-platform=uboot TARGET_CC=arm-elf-gcc
TARGET_CFLAGS="-Os -march=armv6" TARGET_CCASFLAGS="-march=armv6"
TARGET_OBJCOPY="arm-elf-objcopy" TARGET_STRIP="arm-elf-strip"
TARGET_NM=arm-elf-nm TARGET_RANLIB=arm-elf-ranlib LEX=gflex
You need to use following options to specify tools and platforms. For minimum
version look at prerequisites. All tools not mentioned in this section under
corresponding platform are not needed for the platform in question.
- For build
1. BUILD_CC= to gcc able to compile for build. This is used, for
example, to compile build-gentrigtables which is then run to
generate sin and cos tables.
2. BUILD_CFLAGS= for C options for build.
3. BUILD_CPPFLAGS= for C preprocessor options for build.
4. BUILD_LDFLAGS= for linker options for build.
5. BUILD_FREETYPE= for freetype-config for build (optional).
- For host
1. --host= to autoconf name of host.
2. CC= for gcc able to compile for host
3. HOST_CFLAGS= for C options for host.
4. HOST_CPPFLAGS= for C preprocessor options for host.
5. HOST_LDFLAGS= for linker options for host.
6. FREETYPE= for freetype-config for host (optional).
7. Libdevmapper if any must be in standard linker folders (-ldevmapper) (optional).
8. Libfuse if any must be in standard linker folders (-lfuse) (optional).
9. Libzfs if any must be in standard linker folders (-lzfs) (optional).
10. Liblzma if any must be in standard linker folders (-llzma) (optional).
- For target
1. --target= to autoconf cpu name of target.
2. --with-platform to choose firmware.
3. TARGET_CC= for gcc able to compile for target
4. TARGET_CFLAGS= for C options for target.
5. TARGET_CPPFLAGS= for C preprocessor options for target.
6. TARGET_CCASFLAGS= for assembler options for target.
7. TARGET_LDFLAGS= for linker options for target.
8. TARGET_OBJCOPY= for objcopy for target.
9. TARGET_STRIP= for strip for target.
10. TARGET_NM= for nm for target.
11. TARGET_RANLIB= for ranlib for target.
- Additionally for emu, for host and target.
1. SDL is looked for in standard linker directories (-lSDL) (optional)
2. libpciaccess is looked for in standard linker directories (-lpciaccess) (optional)
3. libusb is looked for in standard linker directories (-lusb) (optional)
- Platform-agnostic tools and data.
1. make is the tool you execute after ./configure.
2. Bison is specified in YACC= variable
3. Flex is specified in LEX= variable
4. GNU unifont and Djvu sans are looked for in standard directories.
Compiling For Multiple Architectures
You can compile the package for more than one kind of computer at the
same time, by placing the object files for each architecture in their
own directory. `cd' to the directory where you want the object files
and executables to go and run the `configure' script. `configure'
automatically checks for the source code in the directory that
`configure' is in and in `..'.
Installation Names
By default, `make install' will install the package's files in
`/usr/local/bin', `/usr/local/man', etc. You can specify an
installation prefix by giving `configure' the option `--prefix=PATH'.
You can specify separate installation prefixes for
architecture-specific files and architecture-independent files. If
you give `configure' the option `--exec-prefix=PATH', the package will
use PATH as the prefix for installing programs and libraries.
Documentation and other data files will still use the regular prefix.
In addition, if you use an unusual directory layout you can give
options like `--bindir=PATH' to specify different values for
particular kinds of files. Run `configure --help' for a list of the
directories you can set and what kinds of files go in them.
If the package supports it, you can cause programs to be installed
with an extra prefix or suffix on their names by giving `configure'
the option `--program-prefix=PREFIX' or `--program-suffix=SUFFIX'.
Please note, however, that the GRUB knows where it is located in the
filesystem. If you have installed it in an unusual location, the
system might not work properly, or at all. The chief utility of these
options for the GRUB is to allow you to "install" in some alternate
location, and then copy these to the actual root filesystem later.
Sharing Defaults
If you want to set default values for `configure' scripts to share,
you can create a site shell script called `' that gives
default values for variables like `CC', `cache_file', and `prefix'.
`configure' looks for `PREFIX/share/' if it exists, then
`PREFIX/etc/' if it exists. Or, you can set the
`CONFIG_SITE' environment variable to the location of the site script.
A warning: not all `configure' scripts look for a site script.
Operation Controls
`configure' recognizes the following options to control how it
Use and save the results of the tests in FILE instead of
`./config.cache'. Set FILE to `/dev/null' to disable caching, for
debugging `configure'.
Print a summary of the options to `configure', and exit.
Do not print messages saying which checks are being made.
Look for the package's source code in directory DIR. Usually
`configure' can determine that directory automatically.
Print the version of Autoconf used to generate the `configure'
script, and exit.