cos / mirrors / cros / chromiumos / third_party / autotest / refs/heads/release-R75-12105.B / . / client / cros / audio / audio_analysis.py

# Copyright 2015 The Chromium OS Authors. All rights reserved. | |

# Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style license that can be | |

# found in the LICENSE file. | |

"""This module provides utilities to do audio data analysis.""" | |

import logging | |

import numpy | |

import operator | |

# Only peaks with coefficient greater than 0.01 of the first peak should be | |

# considered. Note that this correspond to -40dB in the spectrum. | |

DEFAULT_MIN_PEAK_RATIO = 0.01 | |

PEAK_WINDOW_SIZE_HZ = 20 # Window size for peak detection. | |

# The minimum RMS value of meaningful audio data. | |

MEANINGFUL_RMS_THRESHOLD = 0.001 | |

class RMSTooSmallError(Exception): | |

"""Error when signal RMS is too small.""" | |

pass | |

class EmptyDataError(Exception): | |

"""Error when signal is empty.""" | |

def normalize_signal(signal, saturate_value): | |

"""Normalizes the signal with respect to the saturate value. | |

@param signal: A list for one-channel PCM data. | |

@param saturate_value: The maximum value that the PCM data might be. | |

@returns: A numpy array containing normalized signal. The normalized signal | |

has value -1 and 1 when it saturates. | |

""" | |

signal = numpy.array(signal) | |

return signal / float(saturate_value) | |

def spectral_analysis(signal, rate, min_peak_ratio=DEFAULT_MIN_PEAK_RATIO, | |

peak_window_size_hz=PEAK_WINDOW_SIZE_HZ): | |

"""Gets the dominant frequencies by spectral analysis. | |

@param signal: A list of numbers for one-channel PCM data. This should be | |

normalized to [-1, 1] so the function can check if signal RMS | |

is too small to be meaningful. | |

@param rate: Sampling rate. | |

@param min_peak_ratio: The minimum peak_0/peak_i ratio such that the | |

peaks other than the greatest one should be | |

considered. | |

This is to ignore peaks that are too small compared | |

to the first peak peak_0. | |

@param peak_window_size_hz: The window size in Hz to find the peaks. | |

The minimum differences between found peaks will | |

be half of this value. | |

@returns: A list of tuples: | |

[(peak_frequency_0, peak_coefficient_0), | |

(peak_frequency_1, peak_coefficient_1), | |

(peak_frequency_2, peak_coefficient_2), ...] | |

where the tuples are sorted by coefficients. | |

The last peak_coefficient will be no less than | |

peak_coefficient * min_peak_ratio. | |

If RMS is less than MEANINGFUL_RMS_THRESHOLD, returns [(0, 0)]. | |

""" | |

# Checks the signal is meaningful. | |

if len(signal) == 0: | |

raise EmptyDataError('Signal data is empty') | |

signal_rms = numpy.linalg.norm(signal) / numpy.sqrt(len(signal)) | |

logging.debug('signal RMS = %s', signal_rms) | |

# If RMS is too small, set dominant frequency and coefficient to 0. | |

if signal_rms < MEANINGFUL_RMS_THRESHOLD: | |

logging.warning( | |

'RMS %s is too small to be meaningful. Set frequency to 0.', | |

signal_rms) | |

return [(0, 0)] | |

logging.debug('Doing spectral analysis ...') | |

# First, pass signal through a window function to mitigate spectral leakage. | |

y_conv_w = signal * numpy.hanning(len(signal)) | |

length = len(y_conv_w) | |

# x_f is the frequency in Hz, y_f is the transformed coefficient. | |

x_f = _rfft_freq(length, rate) | |

y_f = 2.0 / length * numpy.fft.rfft(y_conv_w) | |

# y_f is complex so consider its absolute value for magnitude. | |

abs_y_f = numpy.abs(y_f) | |

threshold = max(abs_y_f) * min_peak_ratio | |

# Suppresses all coefficients that are below threshold. | |

for i in xrange(len(abs_y_f)): | |

if abs_y_f[i] < threshold: | |

abs_y_f[i] = 0 | |

# Gets the peak detection window size in indice. | |

# x_f[1] is the frequency difference per index. | |

peak_window_size = int(peak_window_size_hz / x_f[1]) | |

# Detects peaks. | |

peaks = peak_detection(abs_y_f, peak_window_size) | |

# Transform back the peak location from index to frequency. | |

results = [] | |

for index, value in peaks: | |

results.append((x_f[index], value)) | |

return results | |

def _rfft_freq(length, rate): | |

"""Gets the frequency at each index of real FFT. | |

@param length: The window length of FFT. | |

@param rate: Sampling rate. | |

@returns: A numpy array containing frequency corresponding to | |

numpy.fft.rfft result at each index. | |

""" | |

# The difference in Hz between each index. | |

val = rate / float(length) | |

# Only care half of frequencies for FFT on real signal. | |

result_length = length // 2 + 1 | |

return numpy.linspace(0, (result_length - 1) * val, result_length) | |

def peak_detection(array, window_size): | |

"""Detects peaks in an array. | |

A point (i, array[i]) is a peak if array[i] is the maximum among | |

array[i - half_window_size] to array[i + half_window_size]. | |

If array[i - half_window_size] to array[i + half_window_size] are all equal, | |

then there is no peak in this window. | |

Note that we only consider peak with value greater than 0. | |

@param window_size: The window to detect peaks. | |

@returns: A list of tuples: | |

[(peak_index_1, peak_value_1), (peak_index_2, peak_value_2), ...] | |

where the tuples are sorted by peak values. | |

""" | |

half_window_size = window_size / 2 | |

length = len(array) | |

def mid_is_peak(array, mid, left, right): | |

"""Checks if value at mid is the largest among left to right in array. | |

@param array: A list of numbers. | |

@param mid: The mid index. | |

@param left: The left index. | |

@param rigth: The right index. | |

@returns: A tuple (is_peak, next_candidate) | |

is_peak is True if array[index] is the maximum among numbers | |

in array between index [left, right] inclusively. | |

next_candidate is the index of next candidate for peak if | |

is_peak is False. It is the index of maximum value in | |

[mid + 1, right]. If is_peak is True, next_candidate is | |

right + 1. | |

""" | |

value_mid = array[mid] | |

is_peak = True | |

next_peak_candidate_index = None | |

# Check the left half window. | |

for index in xrange(left, mid): | |

if array[index] >= value_mid: | |

is_peak = False | |

break | |

# Mid is at the end of array. | |

if mid == right: | |

return is_peak, right + 1 | |

# Check the right half window and also record next candidate. | |

# Favor the larger index for next_peak_candidate_index. | |

for index in xrange(right, mid, -1): | |

if (next_peak_candidate_index is None or | |

array[index] > array[next_peak_candidate_index]): | |

next_peak_candidate_index = index | |

if array[next_peak_candidate_index] >= value_mid: | |

is_peak = False | |

if is_peak: | |

next_peak_candidate_index = right + 1 | |

return is_peak, next_peak_candidate_index | |

results = [] | |

mid = 0 | |

next_candidate_idx = None | |

while mid < length: | |

left = max(0, mid - half_window_size) | |

right = min(length - 1, mid + half_window_size) | |

# Only consider value greater than 0. | |

if array[mid] == 0: | |

mid = mid + 1 | |

continue; | |

is_peak, next_candidate_idx = mid_is_peak(array, mid, left, right) | |

if is_peak: | |

results.append((mid, array[mid])) | |

# Use the next candidate found in [mid + 1, right], or right + 1. | |

mid = next_candidate_idx | |

# Sort the peaks by values. | |

return sorted(results, key=lambda x: x[1], reverse=True) | |

# The default pattern mathing threshold. By experiment, this threshold | |

# can tolerate normal noise of 0.3 amplitude when sine wave signal | |

# amplitude is 1. | |

PATTERN_MATCHING_THRESHOLD = 0.85 | |

# The default block size of pattern matching. | |

ANOMALY_DETECTION_BLOCK_SIZE = 120 | |

def anomaly_detection(signal, rate, freq, | |

block_size=ANOMALY_DETECTION_BLOCK_SIZE, | |

threshold=PATTERN_MATCHING_THRESHOLD): | |

"""Detects anomaly in a sine wave signal. | |

This method detects anomaly in a sine wave signal by matching | |

patterns of each block. | |

For each moving window of block in the test signal, checks if there | |

is any block in golden signal that is similar to this block of test signal. | |

If there is such a block in golden signal, then this block of test | |

signal is matched and there is no anomaly in this block of test signal. | |

If there is any block in test signal that is not matched, then this block | |

covers an anomaly. | |

The block of test signal starts from index 0, and proceeds in steps of | |

half block size. The overlapping of test signal blocks makes sure there must | |

be at least one block covering the transition from sine wave to anomaly. | |

@param signal: A 1-D array-like object for 1-channel PCM data. | |

@param rate: The sampling rate. | |

@param freq: The expected frequency of signal. | |

@param block_size: The block size in samples to detect anomaly. | |

@param threshold: The threshold of correlation index to be judge as matched. | |

@returns: A list containing detected anomaly time in seconds. | |

""" | |

if len(signal) == 0: | |

raise EmptyDataError('Signal data is empty') | |

golden_y = _generate_golden_pattern(rate, freq, block_size) | |

results = [] | |

for start in xrange(0, len(signal), block_size / 2): | |

end = start + block_size | |

test_signal = signal[start:end] | |

matched = _moving_pattern_matching(golden_y, test_signal, threshold) | |

if not matched: | |

results.append(start) | |

results = [float(x) / rate for x in results] | |

return results | |

def _generate_golden_pattern(rate, freq, block_size): | |

"""Generates a golden pattern of certain frequency. | |

The golden pattern must cover all the possibilities of waveforms in a | |

block. So, we need a golden pattern covering 1 period + 1 block size, | |

such that the test block can start anywhere in a period, and extends | |

a block size. | |

|period |1 bk| | |

| | | | |

. . . . | |

. . . . | |

. . . | |

@param rate: The sampling rate. | |

@param freq: The frequency of golden pattern. | |

@param block_size: The block size in samples to detect anomaly. | |

@returns: A 1-D array for golden pattern. | |

""" | |

samples_in_a_period = int(rate / freq) + 1 | |

samples_in_golden_pattern = samples_in_a_period + block_size | |

golden_x = numpy.linspace( | |

0.0, (samples_in_golden_pattern - 1) * 1.0 / rate, | |

samples_in_golden_pattern) | |

golden_y = numpy.sin(freq * 2.0 * numpy.pi * golden_x) | |

return golden_y | |

def _moving_pattern_matching(golden_signal, test_signal, threshold): | |

"""Checks if test_signal is similar to any block of golden_signal. | |

Compares test signal with each block of golden signal by correlation | |

index. If there is any block of golden signal that is similar to | |

test signal, then it is matched. | |

@param golden_signal: A 1-D array for golden signal. | |

@param test_signal: A 1-D array for test signal. | |

@param threshold: The threshold of correlation index to be judge as matched. | |

@returns: True if there is a match. False otherwise. | |

@raises: ValueError: if test signal is longer than golden signal. | |

""" | |

if len(golden_signal) < len(test_signal): | |

raise ValueError('Test signal is longer than golden signal') | |

block_length = len(test_signal) | |

number_of_movings = len(golden_signal) - block_length + 1 | |

correlation_indices = [] | |

for moving_index in xrange(number_of_movings): | |

# Cuts one block of golden signal from start index. | |

# The block length is the same as test signal. | |

start = moving_index | |

end = start + block_length | |

golden_signal_block = golden_signal[start:end] | |

try: | |

correlation_index = _get_correlation_index( | |

golden_signal_block, test_signal) | |

except TestSignalNormTooSmallError: | |

logging.info('Caught one block of test signal that has no meaningful norm') | |

return False | |

correlation_indices.append(correlation_index) | |

# Checks if the maximum correlation index is high enough. | |

max_corr = max(correlation_indices) | |

if max_corr < threshold: | |

logging.debug('Got one unmatched block with max_corr: %s', max_corr) | |

return False | |

return True | |

class GoldenSignalNormTooSmallError(Exception): | |

"""Exception when golden signal norm is too small.""" | |

pass | |

class TestSignalNormTooSmallError(Exception): | |

"""Exception when test signal norm is too small.""" | |

pass | |

_MINIMUM_SIGNAL_NORM = 0.001 | |

def _get_correlation_index(golden_signal, test_signal): | |

"""Computes correlation index of two signal of same length. | |

@param golden_signal: An 1-D array-like object. | |

@param test_signal: An 1-D array-like object. | |

@raises: ValueError: if two signal have different lengths. | |

@raises: GoldenSignalNormTooSmallError: if golden signal norm is too small | |

@raises: TestSignalNormTooSmallError: if test signal norm is too small. | |

@returns: The correlation index. | |

""" | |

if len(golden_signal) != len(test_signal): | |

raise ValueError( | |

'Only accepts signal of same length: %s, %s' % ( | |

len(golden_signal), len(test_signal))) | |

norm_golden = numpy.linalg.norm(golden_signal) | |

norm_test = numpy.linalg.norm(test_signal) | |

if norm_golden <= _MINIMUM_SIGNAL_NORM: | |

raise GoldenSignalNormTooSmallError( | |

'No meaningful data as norm is too small.') | |

if norm_test <= _MINIMUM_SIGNAL_NORM: | |

raise TestSignalNormTooSmallError( | |

'No meaningful data as norm is too small.') | |

# The 'valid' cross correlation result of two signals of same length will | |

# contain only one number. | |

correlation = numpy.correlate(golden_signal, test_signal, 'valid')[0] | |

return correlation / (norm_golden * norm_test) |